The Botswana Public Service was confronted with several challenges when implementing the performance management system. Against this background, this research was undertaken to determine the perceptions of staff regarding the implementation of the programme in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation between 1999 and 2014. A mixed methods research design was employed using a case study, evaluation research and a survey as well as the model of social programmes. A sample of 90 was selected using purposive sampling and yielded a response rate of 54%. Data sources included a literature review, document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. The study found, inter alia, that implementation was problematic because of unclear foreign policy goals and objectives, thus recommending setting specific foreign policy objectives. The study findings highlight some of the major factors that affect the implementation of performance management. By identifying these factors through empirical study, this study generated new knowledge to the extant literature on implementation of performance management systems. This is an applied social research study that addresses the practical and theoretical issues of performance management which is of critical importance and interest to the Botswana public service because of the need to improve public service delivery.Public Administratio
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