Can civil society interventions preserve openness on the Internet? Dr. Hintz presents \ud an array of examples of successful policy advocacy for free and open \ud communications, from both within and without formal structures. These are \ud analyzed to show the technical, social, and political responses in resisting enclosures \ud and restrictions on digital communications. The strategies, characteristics, and \ud conditions of successful communications policy activism are laid out. The \ud development of new legal proposals and legislative frameworks, along with \ud participation in their construction, has been especially effective. While a broader \ud collaborative approach has yet to emerge, civil society initiatives have in some cases \ud successfully challenged attempts to curtail online communication, and initiated \ud change towards more open communication environments
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