This paper sets out to establish what is meant by shared governance, analyses the literature on shared governance\ud implementation, and discusses emergent issues. The paper is based on research funded by the Department of Health\ud (England) and by North Sta�ordshire NHS Trust. A literature search was undertaken using the terms `shared\ud governance' and `empowerment', restricted to English language. The databases used were CINAHL, British Nursing\ud Index, Medline, Social Sciences Citation Index and FirstSearch, and the search period was January 1988±May 1998.\ud Initially, nearly 500 articles were identified. This search also highlighted articles describing participative\ud management, professional practice models, and self-managed work teams. For the purposes of this review, only\ud published articles which either described and/or evaluated the implementation of shared governance were analysed.\ud According to these criteria, 48 studies, which were obtained by the cut-off date, were included for detailed\ud assessment. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved
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