Background. Protein-energy wasting is a frequent and\ud debilitating condition in maintenance dialysis. We randomly\ud tested if an energy-dense, phosphate-restricted,\ud renal-specific oral supplement couldmaintain adequate nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition in maintenance\ud haemodialysis patients with insufficient intake.\ud Methods. Eighty-six patients were assigned to a standard\ud care (CTRL) group or were prescribed two 125-ml packs\ud of Renilon 7.5 R daily for 3 months (SUPP). Dietary intake, serum (S) albumin, prealbumin, protein nitrogen appearance(nPNA), C-reactive protein, subjective global assessment(SGA) and quality of life (QOL) were recorded at\ud baseline and after 3 months.\ud Results. While intention to treat analysis (ITT) did not reveal strong statistically significant changes in dietary intake between groups, per protocol (PP) analysis showed that theSUPP group increased protein (P < 0.01) and energy (P <0.01) intakes. In contrast, protein and energy intakes further deteriorated in the CTRL group (PP). Although there was no difference in serum albumin and prealbumin changes\ud between groups, in the total population serum albumin and\ud prealbumin changes were positively associated with the increment in protein intake (r = 0.29, P = 0.01 and r = 0.27, P = 0.02, respectively). The SUPP group did not increase phosphate intake, phosphataemia remained unaffected, and the use of phosphate binders remained stable or decreased. The SUPP group exhibited improved SGA and QOL (P < 0.05).\ud Conclusion. This study shows that providing maintenance\ud haemodialysis patientswith insufficient intake with a renal-\ud specific oral supplement may prevent deterioration in nutritional indices and QOL without increasing the need for\ud phosphate binders
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