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Effects of calcium and Bacillus spp. treatments on the growth of calla lily

By Jiun-Rung Shen and 沈峻榮

Abstract

The goal of this research was to study the effects of four types Ca amendment as well as Bacillus spp. on the growth of cut flower and bulb harvested of calla lily with special concern about the prevention of soft rot disease. Four types of calcium used were: Ca(NO3)2,CaSO4,Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus mycoides were the two Bacillus tested in this experiment. Supplemented calcium fertilizers were applied to calla lily ‘Pot of Gold’ by either pre-flower or post-flower application. There was no difference to the plant mineral contents between treatments for post-flower application. For pre-flower application, cut flower quality were better with Ca amendment, and Ca contents in leaf, petiole and the skin of bulb lower part were all increased by Ca amendment. Ca amendment also found to increase layers of bulb epidermal cell, raised calcium in bulb skin, which would be increasing cell wall integrity and reduce the chance of mechanical injury. And that supposed to lower soft rot disease occurrence. We also found the effects of Ca to the flower only occurred on the treated season, there is no remaining influence for next year cut flower production. Two commercial PGPR (Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria) BS1(B. subtilis) and BM3(B. mycoides) were mixed with growing media for calla lily cultivation. Both B. subtilis and B. mycoides were increased the size of calla lily root system, and the petioles were longer for Bacillus treated plants. Fresh weight and dry weight as well as starch contents of the bulbs were higher from Bacillus treated plants. For BM3 treated plants, B. mycoides were only found in the tissue of roots and bulbs. No Bacillus mycoides colony could be found for leaf or petiole tissue culture from BM3 treated plants. It shows that the Bacillus were restricted within underground of calla lily.本研究目標為探討施用鈣肥Ca(NO3)2、CaSO4、Ca(OH)2或CaCO3等以及枯草桿菌Bacillus subtilis或蕈狀芽孢桿菌Bacillus mycodies對彩色海芋生長及抑制細菌性軟腐病之影響。以彩色海芋‘Pot of Gold’為試驗材料,分別在開花前以及開花後進行添加鈣肥試驗,在開花後施用鈣肥對彩色海芋植體營養元素的含量影響很小,而在開花前施用鈣肥,其切花品質皆會比對照組佳,而且能增加葉片、葉柄以及地下部塊根莖底部表皮的鈣含量。在塊根莖的切片鏡檢中,有鈣肥處理的塊根莖其表皮的細胞層數會多於對照組,因此可增加表皮鈣含量,可能可以增加塊根莖的細胞壁完整性以及物理防禦性,減少因機械傷害或碰撞而產生傷口,而減少軟腐的發病率。進一步試驗探討鈣肥處理對於次年切花品質之影響,可以得出鈣肥處理主要還是以影響當季為主,對於下一季的切花品質並沒有影響。 分別使用枯草桿菌B. subtilis商品BS1以及蕈狀芽孢桿菌B. mycodies商品BM3等植物生長促進根圈菌(Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria;PGPR)與栽培介質混拌進行栽種,這兩種細菌皆屬於芽孢桿菌屬細菌,不過最主要差別是在於B. subtilis具有能夠抑制軟腐細菌生長的能力,而B. mycodies是屬於內生性細菌,能夠在植物體內與之共生。B. subtilis與B. mycodies皆有促進植物生長的效果,試驗亦證實能促使彩色海芋根系增多,且葉柄的長度會比較長。塊根莖的鮮乾重以及澱粉含量也會比較多。另外,這個試驗也觀察到以BM3處理的植株根系以及塊根莖才有B. mycodies菌落的出現,然而在葉柄以及葉片並沒有出現菌落,顯示Bacillus mycodies可能沒辦法藉由植物蒸散流隨水份移行至地上部,或是以本試驗中的處理方式沒辦法使其分散於植株各處。而在軟腐病抑制試驗中,對照組與處理組發病率皆過低,顯示試驗的接種方式與濃度仍須在進一步研擬。中文摘要(Abstract)……………………………………………………………………………………………………… i Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii 目錄(Content) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii 圖目錄 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v 表目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii 前言(Introduction) ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 前人研究(Literature review) 一、彩色海芋原生地與分類……………………………………………………………………………………… 2 二、彩色海芋生長習性與型形態……………………………………………………………………………… 2 三、產業概況………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 四、彩色海芋產業瓶頸與改善…………………………………………………………………………………… 4 五、鈣對植物生長發育之影響…………………………………………………………………………………… 6 六、鈣對植物開花與切花生長品質之影響……………………………………………………………… 6 七、鈣肥施用對植物抵抗細菌性軟腐病之影響 …………………………………………………… 7 八、軟腐病菌的生物防治…………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 材料與方法(Materials and methods) 一、不同鈣源對彩色海芋生長之影響……………………………………………………………………… 10 試驗1-1、彩色海芋不同鈣肥處理之田間試驗……………………………………………………… 10 試驗1-2、田間鈣肥處理對彩色海芋塊根莖次年開花影響………………………………… 14 二、芽孢桿菌屬(Bacillus)拮抗微生物對彩色海芋之影響…………………………… 15 試驗2-1、芽孢桿菌屬微生物混拌介質對彩色海芋生長之影響………………………… 15 試驗2-2、蕈狀芽孢桿菌混拌介質對彩色海芋生長與抑制軟腐病之試驗……… 17   結果(Results) 一、不同鈣源對彩色海芋生長之影響……………………………………………………………………… 19 試驗1-1、彩色海芋不同鈣肥處理之田間試驗……………………………………………………… 19 試驗1-2、田間鈣肥處理對彩色海芋塊根莖次年開花影響………………………………… 24 二、芽孢桿菌屬(Bacillus)拮抗微生物對彩色海芋之影響…………………………… 25 試驗2-1、芽孢桿菌屬拮抗微生物混拌介質對彩色海芋生長之影響………………… 25 試驗2-2、蕈狀芽孢桿菌混拌介質對彩色海芋生長與抑制軟腐病之試驗……… 26 討論(Discussion) 一、不同鈣源對彩色海芋塊根莖與切花生長之影響…………………………………………… 63 (一) 鈣肥處理對塊根莖生長之影響……………………………………………………………………… 63 (二) 鈣肥處理對植物開花之影響…………………………………………………………………………… 64 (三) 鈣肥處理對植體營養元素之影響………………………………………………………………… 64 二、芽孢桿菌屬(Bacillus)拮抗微生物對彩色海芋生長與軟腐病抵抗之影響…66 參考文獻(Referece) …………………………………………………………………………………………… 68 附錄(Appendix) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

Topics: calla lily, calcium, Bacillus spp., 彩色海芋, 鈣, 芽孢桿菌
Year: 2017
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:11455/86063
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