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Formation of Taiwan Indigenous Identity under the State System ─ Take voices of Orchid Island, My River,and The Death of Wufeng for Example

By 蘇倖儀 and Hsing-I Su

Abstract

The flourished Taiwan indigenous movements in the 1990s led to the awareness of indigenous identity and called attention many indigenous issues. With the rise of the international wave of indigenous rights, more and more indigenous people began to think about the future development of tribal cultures. Under the state system, indigenous people have suffered oppression and indifference for a long time. Using social theories, they gradually formed their own identity and launched a series of movements through all kinds of channels to proclaim their rights in hope of solving those perennial problems which are caused by the unequal power relationship between the government and the aborigines. Besides, they have made great effort to break the existing ethnic frame and raise its status. In this social atmosphere, the popularity of photography training programs and the availability of photographic equipment also help develop documentary films related to indigenous issues. My research explores three Taiwanese directors’ documentary films: Voices of Orchid Island, My River, and The Death of Wufeng. These three documentary directors with distinct identities provide a way to show audience how hard the indigenous people fought against the ruling authority, cleared the stigma, and formed their identity step by step from 1990s to 2013. The first part with the focus on touristic, medical, cultural and educational topics along with nuclear waste issues in Lanyu analyzes the power relationship between the indigenous people and the government. Examining these topics helps us to understand how indigenous people fight for their rights with preliminary mobilization. The second part talks about the residential land dispute in Sanying Tribe. This film demonstrates the process of identity formation and the changing way of utterance from the 1990s to 2000s. It also shows us how the government uses the power of the state apparatus, such as the public authority and laws, to control indigenous people and makes them underprivileged in culture, economy, and political status. The third part analyzes the significance of the myth of “Wufeng”. Reviewing the creation, prevalence, and demolition of Wufeng’s statues inspires indigenous people’s inner self-awareness, so that it helps cleanse the stigmatized images of aborigines in the historic context. It has been thirty years since the indigenous movement since it got its way in 1984, and the director demonstrates the determination and confidence in forming indigenous identity and successfully exonerates Tsou from all blames by tracing down the whole events. Living in Taiwan, the state should be coexistence with indigenous people and work with each other to form their subjectivity. When Taiwan goes on a more diversified and international-outlook stage, the efforts should be made to take historical trauma seriously, instead of ignoring its existence. These three documentary films lead us to think about the world from a new perspective. By using the video image, directors are launching a non-violent indigenous movement at the same time. Through the power of audiovisual media, they hope to reach the new partnership between indigenous people and the government.八○年代臺灣原住民運動蓬勃發展,帶動了原住民族自覺思潮,並促使諸多原住民族的問題浮上檯面,再加上國際原住民人權風潮的興起,越來越多的原住民開始思索部落文化該何去何從。在以漢人為主的國家體制下,他們長年來受到壓迫與漠視,隨著社會思潮的興起,原住民族逐步建構自我族群的主體意識,透過各發聲管道,開始了一連串的原住民運動,試圖解決長期不對等權力關係下所衍伸的問題,並努力突破既有的族群格局與地位。在這樣社會氛圍下,再加上攝影培訓班的普及與攝影器材的便利性,原住民相關議題的紀錄片因而蓬勃發展。本論文將以《蘭嶼觀點》、《我家門前有大河》、《原運—破除吳鳳神話》這三個跨越九○年代到二○一三年、由不同身分導演所拍攝的紀錄片文本,探討鏡頭下原住民族如何努力衝撞國家體制,洗清遭汙名化的身分以及建構族群的主體認同。   第一部分將從蘭嶼的觀光、醫療、核廢料與文化教育議題切入,了解九○年代原住民族和國家之間的權力關係以及原住民族如何透過初步的動員為自己爭權賦能。第二部分則從三鶯部落的土地居住權爭議,探討九○年代到二○○○年,原住民族自我意識建構過程及發聲方式的轉變以及政府如何憑藉公權力及法律,以國家機器的力量操控著原住民族,使其在文化、經濟、甚至政治地位上都居於弱勢。第三部分將從吳鳳神話的創造、盛行以及戳破,分析神話背後所蘊含的意義及探討原住民族如何激發內在的自我覺醒、洗清族群被汙名化的脈絡。原民運動發起近三十年後,導演回顧這一事件的完整脈絡,成功洗刷曹族的罪名,也展現了原住民族建構主體性的的決心與信心。   生活在這片土地上,國家與原住民族應該是共存共榮,互為主體,在臺灣社會邁向多元化及更具國際觀的展望下,我們應該正視歷史的傷口,絕非漠視它的存在。而這三部紀錄片提供了一種新的觀看及思考方式,影像播放的同時,導演進行了一場溫和的原住民運動方式,期許透過影音媒介的力量,創造原住民族與國家之間的新夥伴關係。第一章 緒論 p1   第一節 研究動機與目的p1 第二節 研究問題p2 一、原住民族運動發展史觀p2 二、文本導演簡介p4 三、三大論述方向p6 第三節 文獻回顧與探討p7 第四節 研究範圍與方法p11 第五節 論文章節結構p13 第二章 九○年代原住民族主體意識的萌生─以《蘭嶼觀點》為例p16 第一節 《蘭嶼觀點》之官方觀點:國家權力的主宰與他者化的島嶼p17 第二節 《蘭嶼觀點》之族人觀點:主體意識的萌生與發聲的困境p24 第三節 胡台麗與《蘭嶼觀點》:人類學家對觀視原住民族角度的反思p30 第四節 小結p34 第三章 二○○○年原住民族自我意識建立過程及發聲方式的轉變─以《我家門     前有大河》為例p35 第一節 三鶯部落與居住正義p36 第二節 《我家門前有大河》與《天堂小孩》:延續的困境與部落生命力p41 第三節 馬躍‧比吼與《我家門前有大河》:以紀錄片為武器的原住民導演p46 第四節 小結p50 第四章 民國百年後原住民族主體意識建構的歷史回顧─以《原運—破除吳鳳神       話》為例p51 第一節 隱藏在吳鳳神話背後的官方意識形態p52 第二節 破解吳鳳神話:原住民族的覺醒與怒吼p58 第三節 Kolas Yotaka與《原運-破除吳鳳神話》:重建原住民族的歷史脈絡p65 第四節 小結p69 第五章 結論p71 參考書目p7

Topics: 原住民, 主體意識, 國家機器, 汙名化, 紀錄片, Indigenous people, Identity, State apparatus, Stigma, Documentary film
Year: 2016
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:123456789/85946
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