The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on the hematological and lipoprotein profile of young men practicing sports at fitness centers. Twenty-two male subjects were divided in two groups: AAS (n = 11; 27.3 ± 4.5 years; 85.1 ± 6.8 kg; 174 ± 5.5 cm) and control (n = 11; 24.7 ± 3.6 years; 81.7 ± 7.6 kg; 178.5 ± 6.5 cm). The hemodynamic response, metabolic profile (blood glucose and lactate) and serum lipoprotein levels were measured prior to, during, and after a submaximal exercise test on a cycloergometer. Blood samples were obtained before the exercise test to determine the hematological profile (white and red cells). The hemodynamic response showed no statistically difference between groups before, during, or after submaximal exercise test. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocytes, leucocytes and monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in AAS users compared to control subjects. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower, whereas triglycerides levels, LDL-cholesterol level and the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio were significantly higher in the AAS group. Blood glucose and lactate levels were significantly higher in the AAS users after submaximal exercise test. In conclusion, young men practicing sports at fitness centers who are AAS users exhibit proatherogenic and prothrombotic profile, and premature metabolic disturb in despite of regular physical activity
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