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The effect of yield of Agaricus bisporus by Adding nutrients

By 李淑萍 and Shu-Ping Li

Abstract

洋菇一直是國內民眾最普遍食用的菇類,經濟效益大,非常值得推廣種植。作者合作的菇場為傳統菇場,無溫控設備,採用戶外發酵。主要以種植洋菇為主。近年來,台灣傳統菇舍栽培洋菇之面積逐年下降,逐漸以溫控菇舍栽培方式取代。因傳統菇舍栽培洋菇易受氣候影響,產量不穩定;且因無溫控設施,易受各種病蟲危害,導致低產量。 本實驗設計在堆肥與出菇時期分別添加兩種濃度的營養劑,包括:益生菌液、水溶性澱粉、益生菌+澱粉+豆漿、豆漿、碳酸鈉等。實驗採收期間為10週。再經由統計軟體 ( SPSS )分析兩個時期添加不同濃度營養劑,對洋菇的產量、生物轉換率、數量、平均大小等,是否有顯著影響。 添加益生菌液 ( 9×109 cfu/ml )可以明顯的提升採收洋菇的平均重量、生物轉換率與數量。而添加碳酸鈉 ( 2% & 4% )則對洋菇無太大影響,反而會降低採收洋菇的平均重量、生物轉換率、數量與菌傘平均大小。 比較堆肥時期與出菇時期添加不同濃度營養劑試驗中,發現在堆肥時期添加各種營養劑可明顯提高洋菇的產量,而無論堆肥時期或出菇後,添加4%碳酸鈉,平均菇重皆無顯著差異。以上可知堆肥發酵時期是影響洋菇產量多寡的關鍵因素,而於發酵時期添加營養劑可明顯增加洋菇產值。 藉由此次研究發現,可利用營養劑的添加來彌補戶外發酵的傳統菇場環境上的不良影響,藉此提升洋菇的產值。The mushroom is the most popular in our country. Because of the economic efficiency of mushroom is very high. It is worth to promote planting. The researcher cooperates with the traditional farm which is mainly for planting mushroom which is no temperature-controlled equipment, instead of using of outdoor fermentation. Recently, the area of mushroom planting in the Taiwan has been reduced every year and traditional farms are replaced by which with temperature-controlled mushroom house. Because traditional mushroom farms without temperature -controlled equipments are often affected by weather and threatened by insects. All of above, It results in low productivity. This experiment is to add two concentrations of nutrients for the compost period and fruiting period. The nutrients including the probiotic, the soluble starch, the mixture of probiotic, starch and soy milk, the soy milk and sodium carbonate etc.. The experiment duration is about 10 weeks. Then analyze whether a significant impact of mushroom harvest weight, biological efficiency ( BE ), the mushroom quantity, and mushroom pileus average size ( AS ) by adding different concentrations of nutrients in twoperiods. The analyze software is SPSS. The probiotic solution ( 9 �109 cfu/ml ) improves the BE, the quantity and the harvest weight significantly. Sodium carbonate ( 2% & 4% ) has no significant impact, but reduces mushroom harvest weight, BE, the quantity, and mushroom pileus. Compare with adding different concentrations of nutrients in the different period. We found variety of nutrients added in the composting period can increase the mushroom harvest weight significantly. Adding 4% sodium carbonate has no impact of the harvest weight no matter in which period. All of above shows that the composting period is the important factor of the mushroom harvest weight. By the study, the use of nutrients can compensate for the adverse effects of the outdoor environment and enhance the yield of the mushroom.第一章 前言……………………………………………………………1 第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………………………2 第一節洋菇介紹 ………………………………………………………2 一、洋菇之分類 ………………………………………………………2 二、洋菇型態 …………………………………………………………2 三、洋菇營養及利用價值 ……………………………………………3 第二節 食用真菌的栽培方式…………………………………………4 一、木生性菇菌的栽培 ………………………………………………4 二、土生性菇菌的栽培 ………………………………………………5 三、與植物共生之菇菌栽培法 ………………………………………5 四、國內外洋菇栽培 …………………………………………………5五、營養需求及出菇條件 ……………………………………………6 六、病蟲防治 …………………………………………………………7 七、洋菇保存 …………………………………………………………8 第三章 材料與方法……………………………………………………10 第一節 合作農場之實地訪查…………………………………………10 一、菇房地址 …………………………………………………………10 二、菇房建造架構 ……………………………………………………11 三、菇床空間架設 ……………………………………………………11 四、實驗時間 …………………………………………………………12 第二節 菇床製作及洋菇栽種過程 …………………………………12 一、菇床製作及堆肥發酵過程 ………………………………………12 二、菌種之種類及播撒時間 …………………………………………14 三、覆 土 ……………………………………………………………16 四、栽培管理 …………………………………………………………17 第三節 營養劑種類及添加實驗………………………………………17 一、營養劑種類 ………………………………………………………17 二、實驗流程 ……………………………………………………… 18 第四章 結果 …………………………………………………………22 第一節 變異數分析 ( one-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) )………………………………………………………………………… 22 一、堆肥時期加入不同營養劑對採收洋菇的影響 …………………22 二、出菇時期加入不同營養劑對採收洋菇的影響 …………………23 第二節 不同時期添加不同濃度的營養劑對洋菇平均重量的影響…32 一、添加不同益生菌濃度對平均菇重的影響 ………………………32 二、添加豆漿液對平均菇重的影響 …………………………………32 三、添加不同濃度水溶性澱粉對平均菇重的影響 …………………32 四、添加不同濃度的益生菌+澱粉+豆漿糖 營養劑對平均菇重的影響……………………………………………………………………… 32 五、添加碳酸鈉營養劑對平均菇重的影響 …………………………32 六、水對平均菇重的影響 ……………………………………………32 第三節 營養劑添加後之預估產值……………………………………38 第五章 結論 …………………………………………………………40 第六章 參考文獻………………………………………………………4

Topics: 洋菇, 磨菇, 營養劑, mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, nutrients
Publisher: 生命科學院碩士在職專班
Year: 2014
OAI identifier: oai:ir.lib.nchu.edu.tw:11455/81157
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