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Expression of p53, Ki67, EcPV2- and EcPV3 DNA, and viral genes in relation to metastasis and outcome in equine penile and preputial squamous cell carcinoma

By J G B van den Top, L Harkema, C Lange, J M Ensink, C H A van de Lest, A Barneveld, P R van Weeren, A Gröne and A Martens


REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine penile and preputial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a potentially lethal disease of which little is known regarding the relationship between tumour characteristics and prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between tumour differentiation grade (tumour subtype), presence of papillomaviruses, expression of viral genes (E2, E6, L1), nuclear proteins p53 and Ki67 and metastasis in equine penile and preputial SCC and to assess the relationship of tumour subtype, presence of papillomavirus type 2, p53 and Ki67 with survival. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study using archived material. METHODS: Samples (n = 103) from 87 horses with penile and/or preputial intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), papilloma or SCC and corresponding case files were evaluated. Tumours were graded microscopically and p53 and Ki67 expression evaluated immunohistochemically. Equine papillomavirus (EcPV) types 2 and 3 DNA was detected by conventional PCR. Real-time PCR was used for quantification of E2, E6 and L1 mRNA. RESULTS: Equine papillomavirus type 2 DNA was detected in 89.4% and EcPV3 in 1.5% of horses. No differences in quantitative expression of E2, E6 and L1 oncogenes between subtypes were found. Expression of p53 and occurrence of metastasis were positively correlated to a less differentiated subtype (r = 0.429, P<0.001 and r = 0.769, P = 0.001, respectively). Differences in survival between subtypes were significant (log Rank P<0.001); horses with less differentiated tumours were more likely to die of the disease (papilloma 8.3%; G1 26.1%; G2 26.3%; G3 63.3%). CONCLUSIONS: In equine penile and preputial SCC, tumour grading is an important prognosticator for survival and a predictor for presence of metastases. Expression of p53 and Ki67 and presence or expression of EcPV2 and EcPV3 do not appear to be important prognosticators

Topics: horse, squamous cell carcinoma, penis, grading, p53, Ki67, EcPV2, EcPV3, immunohistochemistry
Year: 2015
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