The current generation of large-scale hydrological\ud models does not include a groundwater flow component.\ud Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers\ud and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due\ud to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only\ud available in developed countries. In this study, we propose\ud a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models\ud by using global datasets that are readily available. As the\ud test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains\ud groundwater head data used to verify the model output.\ud We start by building a distributed land surface model\ud (30 arc-second resolution) to estimate groundwater recharge\ud and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient\ud groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and\ud surface water levels calculated by the land surface model.\ud Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an\ud offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW\ud groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are\ud separately performed). The simulated river discharges compare\ud well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity\ud analysis, in which we run several groundwater model\ud scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings,\ud we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce\ud the observed groundwater head time series. However, we\ud note that there are still some limitations in the current approach,\ud specifically because the offline-coupling technique\ud simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels\ud and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states\ud and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis\ud Correspondence to: E. H. Sutanudjaja\ud (firstname.lastname@example.org)\ud ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite\ud these limitations, we argue that the results of the current\ud model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling\ud practices, including for data-poor environments and at the\ud global scale
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