The emotion of embitterment has been underexposed in past research. In the current study, psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Bern Embitterment Inventory (BEI) have been collected and relationships between embitterment and emotions, personality traits, and health were investigated. Two hundred participants, comprised of mainly students and people living in the region of Utrecht, completed online questionnaires. Correlational and Mann-Whitney analyses, and t-tests were performed, as well as factor analysis. It was shown that embitterment related to higher scores on sadness, anger, guilt, fear, neuroticism, a worse state of social functioning, mental health, health perceptions, and bodily pain, being on social welfare, being single, and having a secondary education level. Lower scores on embitterment were associated with more positive affect, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and having a primary education level. There was no relationship of embitterment with openness, physical and role functioning, being treated for a medical or psychological condition, sex, age, and living area. Results showed adequate reliability and validity for the BEI. Factor analysis showed some discrepancies between the Dutch and German version of the questionnaire, although the overall structure was supported. Given the complexity and severity of the embitterment construct, more profound future research is strongly recommended. The found coherences with emotions, personality, and health may help in creating a more concrete theoretical model of embitterment and the possibility to recognize and treat the group of people that is more prone to developing embitterment
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.