Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in pore water and sediment of a coastal fresh water lake\ud (Haringvliet Lake, The Netherlands). Elevated sediment trace metal concentrations reflect anthropogenic inputs from the Rhine and\ud Meuse Rivers. Pore water and sediment analyses, together with thermodynamic calculations, indicate a shift in trace metal\ud speciation from oxide-bound to sulfide-bound over the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Concentrations of reducible Fe and Mn\ud decline with increasing depth, but do not reach zero values at 20 cm depth. The reducible phases are relatively more important for\ud the binding of Co, Ni, and Zn than for Pb and Cd. Pore waters exhibit supersaturation with respect to Zn, Pb, Co, and Cd\ud monosulfides, while significant fractions of Ni and Co are bound to pyrite. A multi-component, diagenetic model developed for\ud organic matter degradation was expanded to include Zn and Ni dynamics. Pore water transport of trace metals is primarily\ud diffusive, with a lesser contribution of bioirrigation. Reactions affecting trace metal mobility near the sediment–water interface,\ud especially sulfide oxidation and sorption to newly formed oxides, strongly influence the modeled estimates of the diffusive effluxes\ud to the overlying water. Model results imply less efficient sediment retention of Ni than Zn. Sensitivity analyses show that increased\ud bioturbation and sulfate availability, which are expected upon restoration of estuarine conditions in the lake, should increase the\ud sulfide bound fractions of Zn and Ni in the sediments
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