The effect of administration of purified cobra venom factor (CoF) on both induction and expression of delayed hypersensitivity (DH) to sheep red blood cells in mice was studied. Injection of CoF before immunization resulted in enhanced DH, whereas CoF treatment before elicitation suppressed the response. These effects could not directly be associated with reduced serum C3 levels. CoF induced a stimulation of the mononuclear phagocytic system as measured by the clearance of colloidal carbon from the blood. A relation between this stimulatory effect and the modulation of DH is discussed. It is suggested that the macrophage is a major target cell of this CoF action
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