Non-profit organizations are increasingly subjected to the forces of globalization. Although this should not come as a surprise, it is curious to note that the taxation of international philanthropy is an area where discrimination as to residence is still very obvious. Whereas domestic philanthropic flows of money enjoy substantial tax privileges throughout the democratic western world, these privileges often do not apply in situations where borders are crossed. In recent years the importance of support from charities and social investments has increased substantially, but cross-border philanthropy still remains hampered by numerous tax issues. By comparing the relevant legal and tax systems in selected countries, and by taking into account other legal developments relevant to international philanthropy, the author attempts to find a common approach to solve the tax obstacles of international philanthropy. The book begins by defining the scope of the study including the concept of 'landlock', political philosophies substantiating tax relief for philanthropic organizations and an analysis of bilateral treaties. This is followed by a comprehensive and comparative overview of the approach taken in three legal and tax systems regarding international philanthropy, i.e. Germany, the Netherlands and the United States. The work also examines whether EU law allows states (within and without the EU) to maintain 'landlocked' tax positions and, if so, under what type of conditions this may be permitted. Finally, the book concludes with a proposal of a new paradigm of non-discriminating treatment of philanthropy by examining ways to abolish landlocks
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