Following the Convention on Biological Diversity, a European focus on protection-based conservation is starting to be complemented by the incentive-driven approaches, including large private spending on sustainable\ud use of wild resources. Whereas protection has been strongly educational, the “sustain-by-use” approach can be less polarising in societies and landscapes, although it is also more complex and requires new tools to encourage\ud cooperation between many interests. Falconry can be a useful complement to shooting because it has less impact on game stocks. Falconers pioneer raptor restoration, rehabilitation and research techniques, as well as the use of trained raptors for biological control and environmental education. They also have high conservation potential for monitoring through use of raptor populations, in ways that could reduce concern about production of hybrid falcons. Data from recent surveys indicate how falconry could best be managed to benefit conservation of the Peregrine Falcon and other wildlife, using governance principles based on the Bern Convention Charter for Hunting and Biodiversity
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