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Modeling the surface-atmosphere exchange of ammonia

By R.J. Wichink Kruit, W.A.J. van Pul, F.J. Sauter, M. van den Broek, E. Nemitz, M.A. Sutton, M. Krol and A.A.M. Holtslag


New parameterizations for surface–atmosphere exchange of ammonia are presented for application in atmospheric transport models and compared with parameterizations of the literature. The new parameterizations are based on a combination of the results of three years of ammonia flux measurements over a grassland canopy (dominated by Lolium perenne and Poa trivialis) near Wageningen, the Netherlands and existing parameterizations from literature. First, a model for the surface–atmosphere exchange of ammonia that includes the concentration at the external leaf surface is derived and validated. Second, a parameterization for the stomatal compensation point (expressed as Γs, the ratio of [NH4+]/[H+] in the leaf apoplast) that accounts for the observed seasonal variation is derived from the measurements. The new, temperature-dependent Γs describes the observed seasonal behavior very well. It is noted, however, that senescence of plants and field management practices will also influence the seasonal variation of Γs on a shorter timescale. Finally, a relation that links Γs to the atmospheric pollution level of the location through the ‘long-term’ NH3 concentration in the air is proposed

Topics: Atmospheric Sciences
Year: 2010
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.11.049
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