Many species of Lepidoptera have declined over the last few decades. The greatest impact has been on specialist species, with habitat loss and fragmentation being identified as major factors. Change in climate has also been implicated. Warmer summers have enabled almost a quarter (11 species) of native Lepidoptera to expand in range but warmer winters are also speculated to be deleterious to many species. Entomopathogens (pathogens of insects), for example, will benefit from warmer, wetter climatic regimes and are expected to impact on Lepidoptera
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