Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Organotypic cocultures as skin equivalents: A complex and sophisticated in vitro system

By Hans-Jürgen Stark, Axel Szabowski, Norbert E. Fusenig and Nicole Maas-Szabowski


To assess the role of genes required for skin organogenesis, tissue regeneration and homeostasis, we have established in vitro skin equivalents composed of primary cells or cell lines, respectively. In these organotypic cocultures keratinocytes generate a normal epidermis irrespective of the species and tissue origin of fibroblasts. The combination of cells derived from mouse and human tissues facilitates the identification of the origin of compounds involved in epidermal tissue reconstitution and thus the precise analysis of growth regulatory mechanisms

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Biological Procedures Online
Year: 2004
DOI identifier: 10.1251/bpo72
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (2000). c-Jun and JunB antagonistically control cytokine-regulated mesenchymalepidermal interaction in skin. Cell
  2. (2000). c-Jun-dependent CD95-L expression is a ratelimiting step in the induction of apoptosis by alkylating agents. Mol Cell Bio
  3. (1992). Cell interaction and epithelial differentiation.
  4. (1999). Control of cell cycle progression by c-Jun is p53 dependent. Genes Dev
  5. (1993). Culturing keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a three-dimensional mesh results in epidermal differentiation and formation of a basal laminaanchoring zone.
  6. (1998). Epidermal differentiation and basement membrane formation by HaCaT cells in surface transplants.
  7. (2003). Epidermal tissue regeneration and stromal interaction in HaCaT cells is initiated by TGF-α.
  8. (1991). Epidermis generated in vitro: practical considerations and applications.
  9. (1994). Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulate keratinocyte growth and differentiation in vitro. In
  10. (1988). Fusenig NE. Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line.
  11. (1983). Growth and differentiation of transformed keratinocytes from mouse and human skin in vitro and in vivo.
  12. (1996). High frequency of SV40 transformation of mouse cell line 3T3. Virology
  13. (1997). Integrin and basement membrane normalization in mouse grafts of human keratinocytes – implications for epithelial homeostasis. Differentiation
  14. (1992). Integrin expression and differentiation in transformed human epidermal cells is regulated by fibroblasts.
  15. (2000). Keratinocyte growth regulation in defined organotypic cultures through IL–1-induced KGF expression in resting fibroblasts.
  16. (1983). Keratinocytes synthesize basal-lamina proteins in culture.
  17. (1981). Living tissue formed in vivo and accepted as skin-equivalent tissue of full thickness. Science
  18. (1993). Mutual induction of growth factor gene expression by epidermal-dermal cell interaction.
  19. (2001). Organotypic cocultures with genetically modified mouse fibroblasts as a tool to dissect molecular mechanisms regulating keratinocyte growth and differentiation.
  20. (1999). Organotypic keratinocyte cocultures in defined medium with regular epidermal morphogenesis and differentiation.
  21. (2004). Sustained nontumorigenic phenotype correlates with a largely stable chromosome content during long-term culture of the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1997; 19(4):201-214. Maas-Szabowski et al.
  22. (1994). Taichman LB. Fate of human keratinocytes during reepithelialization in an organotypic culture model. Lab Invest
  23. (1994). TGF-β and retinoic acid: regulators of growth and modifiers of differentiation in human epidermal cells. Cell Regulation
  24. (1984). The collagen lattice: A model for studying epidermalization in vitro.
  25. (1991). Transforming growth factor alpha induces collagen degradation and cell migration in differentiating human epidermal raft cultures. Cell Regul

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.