Knaysi, Georges (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.) and Harold R. Curran. Effects of some mechanical factors on the endospores of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 82:691–694. 1961.—Phase contrast microscopy was used to study incipient spore germination and early growth under conditions involving agitation with a platinum wire loop, sonic oscillation, and freezing and thawing. Treatment resulted in change in optical properties and destruction of a certain proportion of the spores. Up to one-tenth of the spores was destroyed by loop agitation. Sonic oscillation had little apparent effect upon incipient germination (darkening) of the spores, but subsequent development involving growth was stimulated in a considerable proportion. The effect of freezing and thawing upon incipient germination is discussed
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