The activities of cytokines were determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of mice persistently or intracerebrally acutely infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus (LCMV). In contrast to CBA/J (LCMV carrier) mice that responded with low levels of LCMV-specific antibody, high-responder NMRI (carrier) mice showed antibody production by B cells outside of lymphoid organs. The B cells that had infiltrated the brains of LCMV carrier mice exhibited no preferential immunoglobulin isotype or subtype virus-specific antibody production. Phenotypic analysis of the brain infiltrates in virus carrier mice revealed dominance of CD4+ T cells in contrast to virtual absence of CD4+ and dominance of CD8+ in mice with acute LCM. In NMRI but not in CBA/J carrier mice, significant concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected in CSF and serum; IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) were not elevated. In contrast, during acute, lethal LCM, IL-6 and IFN-gamma were found at high concentrations, and IL-4, IL-5, and GM-CSF were detectable in CSF and serum, but virus-specific antibody-producing cells were not (yet) detectable in the brain. Thus, distinct cytokine patterns are found in acute versus chronic LCMV infection of the brain: in LCM carrier mice, local random-class immunoglobulin production correlated with the absence of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma but active secretion of IL-6
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