Chloroquine (CHL) has been suggested to play an important role in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma by enhancing Epstein-Barr virus expression. Herpes zoster virus incidence is markedly increased following malaria infection in children being treated with CHL. Recently, CHL has also been shown to dramatically increase the transactivation of Tat protein purified from human immunodeficiency virus. These previous studies indirectly suggest that CHL may be involved in the enhancement of virus replication. This study demonstrates for the first time that CHL indeed enhances Semliki Forest virus and encephalomyocarditis virus replication in mice. These results raise the possible connection between the increased spread of AIDS in endemic malaria areas and the wide use of CHL in those areas for the chemotherapy of malaria
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