An obligately anaerobic, fastidious, slowly growing, spiral, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the blood of a 75-year-old man with acute onset of pyrexia. The patient responded rapidly to appropriate antibiotic therapy. Extensive investigation failed to detect a focus for the infection. Phenotypically, the organism was consistent with Desulfovibrio species. Microscopic investigation revealed an organism with a vibrioid or spirillioid morphology with rapidly progressive motility by means of a single polar flagellum. Biochemically, the organism produced large amounts of H2S and contained desulfovirdin. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the organism was found to be most similar to those of members of the genus Desulfovibrio, with identical sequence homology to the newly proposed species described by Tee et al. (W. Tee, M. Dyall-Smith, W. Woods, and D. Eisen, J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:1760-1764, 1996). This is a second unrelated isolation of this novel species from two widely different locations in Australia. The two isolates show some phenotypic differences, indicating that they are different strains of the same species
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