In order to examine an association between porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) infection and reproductive failure in pigs, sera (n = 171) from stillborn fetuses were collected from 3 different farms with prolonged histories of reproductive problems. These sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to PCV2 using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Of the 171 sera tested, 28 had PCV2 antibody titers of ≥ 1:16. When these 28 samples were tested by a polymerase chain reaction assay, 13 were found to contain PCV2 viral DNA. Of these 13 samples containing both PCV2 antibodies and viral DNA, 9 yielded PCV2 on virus isolation. Amino acid sequences comprising open reading frame 2 of PCV2 from 2 of these isolates were compared to PCV2 isolates from cases of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The amino acid sequences of the 2 isolates from stillborn pigs were shown to be nearly identical to each other, as well as to other PCV2 isolates associated with reproductive failure. When compared with PMWS isolates, the isolates from the stillborn fetuses showed differences of at least 2 amino acids. These results confirm previous findings that transplacental infection of PCV2 occurs in the field and that stillbirths in pigs may be associated with PCV2 infections. At present, the significance of minor differences in amino acid sequences is not known
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