Except for a small fraction of persisters, 10(-6) to 10(-5), Escherichia coli K-12 is killed by prolonged inhibition of murein synthesis. The progeny of persisters are neither more resistant to inhibition of murein synthesis nor more likely to persist than normal cells. Mutants have been isolated in which a larger fraction, 10(-2), persists. The persistent response of the mutants, Hip (high persistence), is to inhibition of murein synthesis at early or late steps by antibiotics (phosphomycin, cycloserine, and ampicillin) or by metabolic block (starvation for diaminopimelic acid). Killing of the parent strain by each of the four inhibitors has two phases: The first is rapid and lasts about 30 min; the second is slower, but still substantial, and lasts 3 to 4 h. The first phase also occurs in the Hip mutants, but then viability of the mutants remains constant after about 30 min. Neither tolerance, resistance, impaired growth, nor reversion of spheroplasts accounts for high-frequency persistence. Two of the mutations map at 33.8 min in a region containing few other recognized functions. This position and the phenotypes define hipA as a newly recognized gene. Transposons Tn5 and Tn10 have been inserted close to hipA making it possible to explore the molecular genetics of persistence, a long recognized but poorly understood phenomenon
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