We developed an efficient polyethylene glycol-mediated spheroplast transfection method for the extremely halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium. The 59-kilobase-pair linear phage phi H DNA molecule routinely produced between 5 X 10(6) and 2 X 10(7) transfectants per microgram of DNA. Between 0.5 and 1% of spheroplasts were transfected per microgram of luminal diameter H DNA. Under our conditions, survival and regeneration of H. halobium spheroplasts were also quite efficient, suggesting that this method will be useful for introducing other DNAs into these bacteria
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