Two Salmonella hybrid strains, SL5313 (Salmonella typhimurium with a D.rfb+ gene cluster) and SL5396 (S. enteritidis with a B.rfb+ gene cluster), each expressing both O-antigen 4 (of serogroup B) and O-antigen 9 (of serogroup D) were studied by immunofluorescence using a mixture of O4-specific mouse monoclonal and O9-specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Bound antibodies, detected by anti-mouse antibody labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and anti-rabbit antibody labelled with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate showed that more than 98% of the bacteria expressed both the O4 and O9 epitopes. Phenol-water-extracted lipopolysaccharide from batch-grown cultures subjected to sugar and methylation analyses by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were shown to contain abequose (of the O4 epitope) and tyvelose (of the O9 epitope) in ratios of 1:1.5 and 1:2.5 for SL5313 and SL5396, respectively. Isolated polysaccharide chains, obtained by weak-acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides, were found to contain both O4 and O9 specificities in the same molecule, since polysaccharide bound to O4 antibody attached to a solid-phase-adsorbed O9-specific antibody and vice versa. This demonstrates that in strains SL5313 and SL5396 O chains containing both O4 repeating units (from S. typhimurium) and O9 units (from S. enteritidis) are present
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