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Endotracheal and aerosol administrations of ceftazidime in patients with nosocomial pneumonia: pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability.

By F Bressolle, J E de la Coussaye, R Ayoub, D Fabre, R Gomeni, G Saissi, J J Eledjam and M Galtier

Abstract

Pharmacokinetic studies on ceftazidime, an aminothiazole cephalosporin with a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity, including activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were performed in patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The concentration-time profiles of ceftazidime in plasma, urine, and bronchial secretions of 12 patients were investigated after intravenous (i.v.) (n = 12), endotracheal (n = 10), and aerosol (n = 5) administrations. In all cases a 1-g dose was administered. Concentrations of drug in all samples were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The elimination of the drug from the blood followed a biexponential (i.v. administration) or a monoexponential (endotracheal and aerosol administrations) decay, with an elimination half-life of 6 h and a total body clearance of 4.2 liters/h. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.36 liter/kg of body weight. Renal clearance of the drug accounted for 58% of the total clearance; 66% +/- 17.7%, 33.5% +/- 17.3%, and 6.59% +/- 3.45% of the administered dose were eliminated in urine as parent drug after i.v., endotracheal, and aerosol administrations, respectively. The absolute bioavailabilities were 0.47 and 0.08 for endotracheal and aerosol administrations, respectively. Very high concentrations were found in bronchial secretions after local administration. The MICs for 90% of the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections were exceeded by concentrations in bronchial secretion for up to 12 h after i.v. infusion and for up to 24 h after endotracheal and aerosol administrations

Topics: Research Article
Year: 1992
DOI identifier: 10.1128/aac.36.7.1404
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:191594
Provided by: PubMed Central
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