Pefloxacin pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities (SBA) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were compared after intravenous infusion of either a single 800-mg dose or twice-daily 400-mg doses into 16 healthy volunteers. Plasma pefloxacin concentrations were measured for up to 60 h, and SBAs were determined 1, 12, and 24 h after the start of the infusion. The mean areas under the concentration-versus-time curve for plasma were not different (138 versus 136 h.mg/liter). The mean clearances, volumes of distribution, and half-lives were also comparable. The mean (+/- standard deviation) maximal concentration after the 800-mg infusion was 12.11 +/- 1.35 versus 6.51 +/- 0.73 mg/liter after the first 400-mg infusion and 7.42 +/- 0.76 mg/liter after the second 400-mg infusion. Mean trough concentrations at 24 h were significantly different: 2.77 +/- 0.63 (800 mg) versus 1.93 +/- 0.49 (400 mg twice) mg/liter (P = 0.0007). Mean SBAs against E. coli after 800 mg of pefloxacin were higher than 1/128 (1 h), 1/32 (12 h), and 1/16 (24 h). Mean SBAs against S. aureus under the same conditions were higher than 1/64 (1 h), 1/16 (12 h), and 1/8 (24 h). Mean SBAs at 1 and 12 h were significantly higher after the 800-mg infusion than after the 400-mg infusion but were similar at 24 h for both regimens. Comparison of SBAs according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards criteria showed a similar adequacy at 24 h for both regimens against both strains. Administration of 800 mg of pefloxacin once a day is bioequivalent to 400 mg twice a day, and bactericidal activity of the 800-mg infusion is not less than that of two 400-mg infusions
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