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Binding of small molecules to an adaptive protein–protein interface

By Michelle R. Arkin, Mike Randal, Warren L. DeLano, Jennifer Hyde, Tinh N. Luong, Johan D. Oslob, Darren R. Raphael, Lisa Taylor, Jun Wang, Robert S. McDowell, James A. Wells and Andrew C. Braisted

Abstract

Understanding binding properties at protein–protein interfaces has been limited to structural and mutational analyses of natural binding partners or small peptides identified by phage display. Here, we present a high-resolution analysis of a nonpeptidyl small molecule, previously discovered by medicinal chemistry [Tilley, J. W., et al. (1997) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 7589–7590], which binds to the cytokine IL-2. The small molecule binds to the same site that binds the IL-2 α receptor and buries into a groove not seen in the free structure of IL-2. Comparison of the bound and several free structures shows this site to be composed of two subsites: one is rigid, and the other is highly adaptive. Thermodynamic data suggest the energy barriers between these conformations are low. The subsites were dissected by using a site-directed screening method called tethering, in which small fragments were captured by disulfide interchange with cysteines introduced into IL-2 around these subsites. X-ray structures with the tethered fragments show that the subsite-binding interactions are similar to those observed with the original small molecule. Moreover, the adaptive subsite tethered many more compounds than did the rigid one. Thus, the adaptive nature of a protein–protein interface provides sites for small molecules to bind and underscores the challenge of applying structure-based design strategies that cannot accurately predict a dynamic protein surface

Topics: Biological Sciences
Publisher: The National Academy of Sciences
Year: 2003
DOI identifier: 10.1073/pnas.252756299
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:149879
Provided by: PubMed Central
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