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Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, NF-κB, and Protein Kinase C in Proinflammatory Cytokine mRNA Expression by Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes, Monocytes, and Neutrophils in Response to Anaplasma phagocytophila

By Hyung-Yong Kim and Yasuko Rikihisa


Anaplasma phagocytophila, an obligately intracellular bacterium of granulocytes, causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Within 2 h after addition of A. phagocytophila, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 mRNAs are induced in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) or monocytes in vitro. However, neutrophils generate only IL-1β mRNA. In the present study, signaling pathways for induction of these three cytokines were examined. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression by PBLs was inhibited with SB 203580 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] inhibitor), MG-132 (a proteasome inhibitor), and SN-50 (an NF-κB inhibitor). Activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB mRNAs in monocytes was detectable within 15 to 30 min after addition of A. phagocytophila. Expression of these two cytokine mRNAs in PBLs and monocytes was also dependent on protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). IL-1β mRNA expression by neutrophils was not dependent on p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK was not activated in neutrophils incubated with A. phagocytophila. IL-1β mRNA induction by PBLs, monocytes, and neutrophils was dependent on PKC and PKA. Neutrophil expression of IL-1β mRNA was dependent on transglutaminase, phospholipase C, and PTK, all of which are also required for internalization of A. phagocytophila. However, monocyte expression of IL-1β mRNA was less dependent on these enzymes. These results suggest that A. phagocytophila transduces different signals between its host neutrophils and monocytes for proinflammatory cytokine generation

Topics: Host Response and Inflammation
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Year: 2002
DOI identifier: 10.1128/IAI.70.8.4132-4141.2002
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
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