The wrapping of intracellular mature vaccinia virions by modified trans-Golgi or endosomal cisternae to form intracellular enveloped virions is dependent on at least two viral proteins encoded by the B5R and F13L open reading frames. B5R is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein, whereas F13L is an unglycosylated, palmitylated protein with a motif that is conserved in a superfamily of phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. Microscopic visualization of the F13L protein was achieved by fusing it to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). F13L-GFP was functional when expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus in which it replaced the wild-type F13L gene or by transfection of uninfected cells with a plasmid vector followed by infection with an F13L deletion mutant. In uninfected or infected cells, F13L-GFP was associated with Golgi cisternae and post-Golgi vesicles containing the LAMP 2 late endosomal-lysosomal marker. Association of F13L-GFP with vesicles was dependent on an intact phospholipase catalytic motif and sites of palmitylation. The B5R protein was also associated with LAMP2-containing vesicles when F13L-GFP was coexpressed, but was largely restricted to Golgi cisternae in the absence of F13L-GFP or when the F13L moiety was mutated. We suggest that the F13L protein, like its human phospholipase D homolog, regulates vesicle formation and that this process is involved in intracellular enveloped virion membrane formation
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