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Tissue-Specific, Tumor-Selective, Replication-Competent Adenovirus Vector for Cancer Gene Therapy

By Konstantin Doronin, Mohan Kuppuswamy, Karoly Toth, Ann E. Tollefson, Peter Krajcsi, Valeri Krougliak and William S. M. Wold

Abstract

We have previously described two replication-competent adenovirus vectors, named KD1 and KD3, for potential use in cancer gene therapy. KD1 and KD3 have two small deletions in the E1A gene that restrict efficient replication of these vectors to human cancer cell lines. These vectors also have increased capacity to lyse cells and spread from cell to cell because they overexpress the adenovirus death protein, an adenovirus protein required for efficient cell lysis and release of adenovirus from the cell. We now describe a new vector, named KD1-SPB, which is the KD1 vector with the E4 promoter replaced by the promoter for surfactant protein B (SPB). SPB promoter activity is restricted in the adult to type II alveolar epithelial cells and bronchial epithelial cells. Because KD1-SPB has the E1A mutations, it should replicate within and destroy only alveolar and bronchial cancer cells. We show that KD1-SPB replicates, lyses cells, and spreads from cell to cell as well as does KD1 in H441 cells, a human cancer cell line where the SPB promoter is active. KD1-SPB replicates, lyses cells, and spreads only poorly in Hep3B liver cancer cells. Replication was determined by expression of the E4ORF3 protein, viral DNA accumulation, fiber synthesis, and virus yield. Cell lysis and vector spread were measured by lactate dehydrogenase release and a “vector spread” assay. In addition to Hep3B cells, KD1-SPB also did not express E4ORF3 in HT29.14S (colon), HeLa (cervix), KB (nasopharynx), or LNCaP (prostate) cancer cell lines, in which the SPB promoter is not expected to be active. Following injection into H441 or Hep3B tumors growing in nude mice, KD1-SPB caused a three- to fourfold suppression of growth of H441 tumors, similar to that seen with KD1. KD1-SPB had only a minimal effect on the growth of Hep3B tumors, whereas KD1 again caused a three- to fourfold suppression. These results establish that the adenovirus E4 promoter can be replaced by a tissue-specific promoter in a replication-competent vector. The vector has three engineered safety features: the tissue-specific promoter, the mutations in E1A that preclude efficient replication in nondividing cells, and a deletion of the E3 genes which shield the virus from attack by the immune system. KD1-SPB may have use in treating human lung cancers in which the SPB promoter is active

Topics: Gene Therapy
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Year: 2001
DOI identifier: 10.1128/JVI.75.7.3314-3324.2001
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:114124
Provided by: PubMed Central
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