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A Controlled Clinical Study of the Effect of Nasal Immunization with a Streptococcus mutans Antigen Alone or Incorporated into Liposomes on Induction of Immune Responses

By Noel K. Childers, Giang Tong, Stephen Mitchell, Katharine Kirk, Michael W. Russell and Suzanne M. Michalek

Abstract

Recent attention to mucosal immunization strategies has been focused on the nasal route for vaccine delivery. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a liposome-protein vaccine compared to that of a protein-only vaccine in inducing immune responses in humans. Healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups and immunized intranasally with a crude antigen preparation rich in glucosyltransferase (C-GTF) from Streptococcus mutans, alone or in liposomes. Parotid saliva, nasal wash, and serum were collected prior to and at weekly intervals following immunization and were analyzed for anti-C-GTF activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) anti-C-GTF activity in the nasal wash from both groups after immunization increased to a mean peak of fivefold over the baseline level on day 28. Salivary IgA anti-C-GTF responses were induced to a lesser extent. IgG and IgA anti-C-GTF responses in serum were detected on day 14. The IgA responses were predominantly of the IgA1 subclass. These results show that C-GTF vaccines were more effective in inducing a local secretory IgA antibody response than a salivary or serum response when they were given intranasally. The IgA1 anti-C-GTF response in nasal wash samples for liposomal antigen versus antigen only was the only response which was significantly different (P < 0.04). This suggests that the form of the antigen affects the magnitude of the local mucosal response but not that of a disseminated response. These results provide evidence for the effective use of a nasal protein vaccine in humans for the induction of mucosal and systemic responses

Topics: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Year: 1999
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:96363
Provided by: PubMed Central
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