Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Small area estimation: new developments and directions

By Danny Pfeffermann


The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the main advances in small area estimation (SAE) methods in recent years. We also discuss some of the earlier developments, which serve as a necessary background for the new studies. The review focuses on model dependent methods with special emphasis on point prediction of the target area quantities, and mean square error assessments. The new models considered are models used for discrete measurements, time series models and models that arise under informative sampling. The possible gains from modeling the correlations among small area random effects used to represent the unexplained variation of the small area target quantities are examined. For review and appraisal of the earlier methods used for SAE, see Ghosh and Rao (1994)

Topics: HA
Year: 2002
OAI identifier:
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles


  1. (1986). A standard error for the estimated state vector of a state space model.
  2. (2000). A unified measure of uncertainty of estimated best linear unbiased predictors in small-area estimation problems.
  3. (1988). An error component model for prediction of county crop areas using survey and satellite data.
  4. (1989). Approximate Bayesian inference in conditionally independent hierarchical models (parametric empirical Bayes models).
  5. (1984). Approximations for standard errors of estimators for fixed and random effects in mixed models.
  6. (1991). Bayesian prediction in linear models: Application to small area estimation,
  7. (2000). Bayesian prediction mean square error for state space models with estimated parameters.
  8. (1998). Bayesian versus frequentist measures of error in small area estimation.
  9. (1975). Best linear unbiased estimation and prediction under a linear model.
  10. (1998). Combining data from surveys and administrative record systems.
  11. (1987). Empirical Bayes confidence intervals based on bootstrap samples.
  12. (1987). Empirical Bayes estimates of age standardized relative risks for use in disease mapping.
  13. (1997). Empirical Bayes small-area estimation using logistic regression models and summary statistics.
  14. (1998). Empirical best prediction for small area inference with binary data.
  15. (1979). Estimates of income for small places: An application of James-Stein procedures to census data,
  16. (1998). Estimation of autocorrelations of survey errors with application to trend estimation in small areas.
  17. (1996). Estimation of median income of four-person families: a Bayesian time series approach.
  18. (1989). Forecasting Structural Time Series with the Kalman Filter. Cambridge:
  19. (1989). Generalized Linear Models 2nd ed. London: Chapman and Hall.
  20. (1998). Generalized linear models for small-area estimation.
  21. (1999). Hierarchical Bayes estimation of unemployment rates for the states of the U.S.
  22. (1989). Modeling and estimation for repeated surveys.
  23. (1999). On Pearson- 2 F testing with unobservable cell frequencies and mixed model diagnostics.
  24. (1999). On robust small area estimation using a simple random effects model.
  25. (1999). On small area estimation under two-fold nested error regression models.
  26. (1997). On the superiority of the Bayesian method over the BLUP in small area estimation problems.
  27. (1999). Organization of small area estimators using a generalized linear regression framework.
  28. (1999). Parametric and semi-parametric estimation of regression models fitted to survey data.
  29. (1998). Parametric distributions of complex survey data under informative probability sampling.
  30. (1986). Prediction mean squared error for state space models with estimated parameters.
  31. (1995). Robust estimation of mean square error of small area predictors.
  32. (1990). Robust small area estimation combining time series and cross-sectional data.
  33. (1989). Robust small domain estimation using random effects modelling.
  34. (1990). Sampling-based approaches to calculating marginal densities.
  35. (1989). Small area estimates of proportions via empirical Bayes techniques.
  36. (1994). Small area estimation by combining time series and crosssectional data.
  37. (1994). Small area estimation: an appraisal (with discussion).
  38. (1997). Small area inference for binary variables in the national health interview survey.
  39. (1999). Small domain estimation of employment using CES and ES202 data. Statistical Policy Working Paper 30, Statistical Policy Office, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget,
  40. (1999). Some recent advances in model-based small area estimation.
  41. (1999). Some recent results on empirical Bayes methods for small area estimation.
  42. (1980). Stochastic parameter regressions: An additional annotated bibliography,
  43. (1977). Stochastic parameter regressions: An annotated bibliography.
  44. (1999). Substance abuse in states: A methodological report on model based estimates from the 1994-1996 national household surveys on drug abuse.
  45. (1990). The estimation of the mean squared error of small-area estimators.
  46. (1990). The time series approach to estimation for repeated surveys.
  47. (1992). Time series modeling of sample survey data from the U.S. Current Population Survey.
  48. (2000). Variance estimation of seasonally adjusted and trend estimators accounting for survey error autocorrelations.
  49. (1998). Weighting for unequal selection probabilities in multilevel models,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.