Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The contribution of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), health anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty to distress in Ménière's disease

By S.E. Kirby and L. Yardley


This study assessed whether symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), health anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty were associated with distress in members of the Ménière's Society (n = 800), and compared the extent of anxiety, depression, intolerance of uncertainty and health anxiety with a healthy control group (n = 484). PTSD symptoms were associated with anxiety, depression, and handicap. Health anxiety was associated with anxiety and depression. Intolerance of uncertainty was directly associated with anxiety; its association with depression and handicap was mediated by PTSD symptoms. The Ménière's group reported more anxiety, depression, and health anxiety than the control group, but were not more intolerant of uncertainty. More than half of the Ménière's group reported experiencing partial or full PTSD symptoms. As PTSD, health anxiety and intolerance of uncertainty are modifiable with psychological treatment, we advise that clinicians should screen patients with Ménière's disease who are particularly distressed

Topics: BF
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:
Provided by: e-Prints Soton

Suggested articles


  1. (2001). A clinical taxonomy of dizziness and anxiety in the otoneurological setting. Anxiety Disord. doi
  2. (2006). A comparison of intolerance of uncertainty in analogue obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety Disord. doi
  3. (2006). A controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy combined with vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of dizziness. Behav Res Ther. doi
  4. (1982). A psychological contribution to the management of Meniere disease.
  5. (2003). Anxiety in the first attack of vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. doi
  6. (2001). Approach to integrated cognitive-behaviour therapy for intense illness worries.
  7. (2009). AQ3—Please provide the location of the publisher of the reference “Jacob RG, Furman JM, Cass SP (2002)” AQ4—Please check whether the given year and volume number for reference
  8. (1995). balt3/zkk-nmd/zkk-nmd/zkk00509/zkk3128-09z xppws
  9. (2009). balt3/zkk-nmd/zkk-nmd/zkk00509/zkk3128-09z xppws S1 3/17/09 11:13 Art: NMD200870 Kirby and Yardley The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease • Volume 197, Number 5,
  10. (2009). Cognitions associated with anxiety in Meniere disease. doi
  11. (1998). Cognitive behavioural treatment of a patient suffering from Meniere disease. doi
  12. (2006). Evaluation of Booklet-Based Self-Management of Symptoms in Me ´nie `re Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Psychosom Med. doi
  13. (2003). Factors associated with quality of life in Meniere disease. Clin Otolaryngol. doi
  14. (2006). Health anxiety levels in chronic pain clinic attenders. doi
  15. (2006). Interaction of somatoform and vestibular disorders. doi
  16. (2005). Intolerance of uncertainty and information processing: Evidence of biased recall and interpretations. Cognit Ther Res. doi
  17. (2006). Investigating the construct validity of intolerance of uncertainty and its unique relationship with worry. Anxiety Disord. doi
  18. (1999). Is posttraumatic stress disorder under diagnosed in routine clinical settings? J Nerv Ment Dis.
  19. (2000). Management of vestibular disorders. doi
  20. (1998). Neuro-otological and psychiatric abnormalities in a community sample of people with dizziness: A blind, controlled investigation. doi
  21. (2001). Neurological bases for balance-anxiety links. doi
  22. (2004). Partial posttraumatic stress disorder revisited. doi
  23. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder following cancer: A conceptual and empirical review. Clin Psychol Rev.
  24. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder following medical illness and treatment. Clin Psychol Rev. doi
  25. (2005). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Management of PTSD doi
  26. (2002). Psychiatric consequences of vestibular dysfunction.
  27. (2005). Quality of life and anxiety disorders: A population study. doi
  28. (2001). Randomized controlled trial of vestibular rehabilitation combined with cognitive-behavioural therapy for dizziness in older people. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. doi
  29. (1987). Self-reported disability and handicap in the population in relation to pure-tone threshold, age, sex, and type of hearing loss. doi
  30. (1999). Specificity of generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and processes. Behaviour Therapy, doi
  31. (1999). Staging and outcomes for Meniere’s disease.
  32. (1981). Staging Meniere disease: Description of a vertigo-disability profile.
  33. (1992). Symptoms, anxiety and handicap in dizzy patients: Development of the vertigo symptoms scale. doi
  34. (1990). The development of the dizziness handicap inventory. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. doi
  35. (2000). The experience of chronic illness and post-traumatic stress disorder: the consequences of cumulative adversity. Soc Sci Med. doi
  36. (2002). The Health Anxiety Inventory: development and validation of scales for the measurement of health anxiety and hypochondriasis. Psychol Med. doi
  37. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. doi
  38. (2002). The intolerance of uncertainty scale: Psychometric properties of the English version. Behav Res Ther. doi
  39. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. doi
  40. (1993). The PTSD Checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at: The Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies:
  41. (2002). The role of bibliotherapy in health anxiety: An experimental study. doi
  42. (2000). Treatment of GAD: Targeting intolerance of uncertainty in two types of worry. Behav Modif. doi
  43. (2008). Understanding psychological distress in Meniere disease: A systematic review. Psychol Health Med. doi
  44. (1997). Vertigo and dizziness. In A doi
  45. (2001). Vestibular rehabilitation for patients with agoraphobia and vestibular dysfunction. A pilot study. Anxiety Disord. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.