In this contribution we characterize the spatial diversity of bird populations in a heterogeneous landscape with respect to vegetation in the northern Pantanal region of Brazil. The method of additive partitioning of species diversity (γ = α + β) was used. Samples were collected in a grid with 30 sampling plots within a 25 km² area (5 x 5 km). A total of 163 bird species were found, comprising 114 resident species and 49 regional migrants. Most species were restricted spatially, with 58% found in a maximum of five sampling plots, while 15% were found in only one plot. The beta diversity comprised 77% of total diversity and was lower for residents than for regional migrants (66% and 88%, respectively). This suggests greater spatial heterogeneity in diversity patterns for regional migrants. Seasonal availability of resources caused by changing water levels as well as anthropogenic influences may also play a role in species diversity patterns by influencing species composition across sampling plots. High beta diversity and species-specific habitat occupancy suggest that conservation and management strategies should be implemented at a regional spatial scale and focus on the conservation of this environmental mosaic
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