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Impacto de la vacunación contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en Cuba Impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in Cuba

By Félix O. Dickinson, Antonio E. Pérez, Miguel A. Galindo and Ibrahim Quintana

Abstract

Objetivo. Determinar el impacto de la vacunación de menores de 2 años en Cuba contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib), principal agente causal de la meningitis bacteriana en ese país. Métodos. La disponibilidad de vacunas conjugadas eficaces contra Hib motivó la vacunación nacional en 1999 de niños menores de 2 años, que alcanzó una cobertura de 97%. El impacto se evaluó mediante el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Meningoencefalitis Bacterianas (SNVMEB). Resultados. La eficacia global de la vacunación se estimó en 99% y la incidencia general de la meningoencefalitis por Hib disminuyó de 1,3 a 0,6 por 100 000 habitantes (46,1%), observándose la mayor reducción en niños menores de 5 años (56,1%). En los menores de 1 año se redujo 70,5% y en el resto de los grupos de menores de 5 años disminuyó entre 25,9 y 49,6%. En el grupo diana para la vacunación, la incidencia se redujo 61,1%; entre los niños de este grupo que contrajeron la meningoencefalitis por Hib, solamente 8 (24,2%) estaban vacunados, 7 de ellos con una sola dosis, aplicada 1 mes antes de enfermar. Conclusiones. Se ha demostrado que la vacunación a gran escala de los niños menores de 2 años contra Hib en Cuba a través del SNVMEB ha logrado disminuir notablemente la incidencia de meningoencefalitis por Hib.<br>Objective. To assess the effectiveness of mass vaccination in Cuba of children under 2 years of age against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), the most common causative pathogen of bacterial meningitis. Methods. The availability of effective Hib conjugate vaccines led to a nationwide vaccination program in 1999 targeting all children under 2 years of age, with a 97% coverage rate achieved. To assess the program's impact, data from 1998 and 1999 from the National Bacterial Meningitis Reporting System were used. Results. Vaccination efficacy was estimated at 99%. The overall incidence of Hib meningitis declined 46.1%, from 1.3 to 0.6 cases per 100 000 population. The greatest overall reduction, of 56.1%, occurred among children under 5 years of age. Among children under 1 year of age, the reduction was 70.5%, and among the rest of the age groups of children under 5, incidence decreased between 25.9% and 49.6%. In the group targeted for vaccination, incidence decreased 61.1%. Among children in the target group who contracted Hib meningitis, only 8 cases (24.2%) had been vaccinated, most with a single dose applied 1 month before becoming ill. Conclusions. Hib vaccination of all children under 2 years of age in Cuba greatly reduced the incidence of Hib meningitis, as measured by the National Bacterial Meningitis Reporting System

Topics: Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, vacunas, sistema de vigilancia, meningitis bacterianas, LCC:Public aspects of medicine, LCC:RA1-1270, LCC:Medicine, LCC:R, DOAJ:Public Health, DOAJ:Health Sciences
Publisher: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Year: 2001
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:9619e60556b04dc19104f8acdef87701
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