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Composición Fitoquímica y Nutricional de Algunos Frutos de Árboles de Interés Forrajero de Los Llanos Centrales de Venezuela

By Pablo Pizzani, Irana Matute, Giovanna Martino, Adelis Arias, Susmira Godoy, Luis Pereira, José Palma and Mercedes Rengifo

Abstract

Para evaluar la composición fitoquímica y nutricional de algunos frutos de árboles de interés forrajero de los llanos centrales de Venezuela: Samán (Pithecellobium saman), Carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), Cují hediondo (Acacia macracantha), Cañafistolillo (Senna otomaria), Caruto (Genipa americana), Dividive (Caesalpinia coriaria), Granadillo (Caesalpinia granadillo), Guamacho (Pereskia guamacho), Tiamo (Acacia glomerosa), Guásimo (Guazuma ulmifolia), Merecure (Licania pyrifolia), Cují blanco (Prosopis juliflora); se procedió a determinar mediante el tamizaje fitoquímico la presencia de doce (12) metabolitos secundarios: fenoles totales (FT), flavonoides (Flav), taninos que precipitan las proteínas (TPP), taninos condensados (TC), esteroides (Est), quinonas (Quin), cumarinas (Cum), aminoácidos no proteicos (AANP), alcaloides (Alc), saponinas (Sap), triterpenos (Trip) y proantocianidinas (Proantc). El estudio fitoquímico arrojó altos niveles de Sap en Pithecellobium saman y Enterolobium cyclocarpum, lo cual pudiera causar problemas digestivos a los rumiantes. El 75% de los frutos mostró presencia de aminoácidos libres. Un 92% reaccionó positivamente a los TPP. Los contenidos de FT mostraron un amplio rango de variación (P<0,05), que oscilaron entre 0,46 y 16,28 %. Los valores mas elevados en TC lo registraron Acacia macracantha (2,40%), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (1,18%) y Pithecellobium saman (1,01%). Con relación a la presencia de Sap, los ensayos cualitativos presentaron resultados con gran variabilidad entre las especies. El 75% de los frutos estudiados presentan alcaloides. El contenido de esteroides osciló entre 6,20 - 13 % y se observó diferencias (P<0,05) entre los frutos evaluados. El 91 % de los frutos reaccionó positivamente a las Cum. Los diferentes componentes del análisis químico arrojaron valores de proteína cruda (PC) entre 3,90 y 16%. Los contenidos de fibra, expresados como FND y FAD, variaron significativamente (P<0,05) entre los diferentes frutos. Los valores de degradabilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DMS), evaluada en licor ruminal de ovejos adultos, oscilaron entre 45 y 90%. En consecuencia, podemos concluir: que de los frutos evaluados Licania pyrifolia, Guazuma ulmifolia, Genipa americana y Prosopis juliflora constituyen las mejores fuentes de alimentación alternativa para los rumiantes debido a los bajos o moderados contenidos totales de metabolitos secundarios en su biomasa y además presentan excelentes valores de degradabilidad in vitro de la materia seca.<br>The phytochemical and nutritional composition of some fruits of forage trees from the Venezuelan Central Plains were evaluated. The following fruits were studied: Samán (Pithecellobium saman), Carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum), Cují hediondo (Acacia macracantha), Cañafistolillo (Senna otomaria), Caruto (Genipa americana), Dividive (Caesalpinia coriaria), Granadillo (Caesalpinia granadillo), Guamacho (Pereskia guamacho), Tiamo (Acacia glomerosa), Guásimo (Guazuma ulmifolia), Merecure (Licania pyrifolia), Cují blanco (Prosopis juliflora). The presence of 12 secondary metabolites was determined by phytochemistry screening. Total phenols (TF), flavonoids (Flav), tannins that precipitate proteins (TPP), condensed tannins (CT), steroids (Ster), quinons (Quin), cumarins (Cum), non-proteic aminoacids (NPAA), alkaloids (Alk), saponins (Sap), triterpenes (Trip), and proanthocyanidines (Proantc) were analyzed. The presence of free aminoacids was detected in 75% of the fruits studied. 92% reacted positively to TPP. TF showed ample variation (P<0.05) that ranged from 0.46 to 16.28%. The highest TC values were found in Acacia macracantha (2.40%), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (1.18%), and Pithecellobium saman (1.01%), respectively. Qualitative results for Sap, showed great variability among species. The phyochemistry screening revealed that Pithecellobium saman and Enterolobium cyclocarpum contained considerable levels of Sap, which could cause digestive problems to ruminants. Alk were present in 75% of fruits studied. The Strds content ranked between 6.20-13% and significant differences were seen among the fruits evaluated. 91% of the fruits positively reacted to Cum. The different components of the chemical analysis showed crude protein values which ranked between 3.90 and 16%. Fiber content, expressed as FND and FAD, respectively, varied considerably (P<0.05) for the different fruits. Values for dry matter in vitro degradation (DMD), evaluated as ruminal liquor of sheep, oscillated between 45 and 90%. These results suggest that, of all the fruits studied, Licania pyrifolia, Guazuma ulmifolia, Genipa americana, and Prosopis juliflora, become the best sources of alternative feeding for ruminants due to the low to moderate content of total secondary metabolites in their biomass. Furthermore, they show excellent values for dry matter in vitro degradation

Topics: Frutos forrajeros,, composición fitoquímica, metabolitos secundarios, degradabilidad, digestión ruminal,, ovinos, Guárico, Forage fruits, screening phytochemistry, secondary metabolites, degradation,, rumen digestión, sheep, Guárico, LCC:Animal culture, LCC:SF1-1100, LCC:Agriculture, LCC:S, DOAJ:Animal Sciences, DOAJ:Agriculture and Food Sciences
Publisher: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias. Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:ca5ff479d0a64e2281e62a1c72b007f3
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