Canada, area had been building for at least 10 years. The only consensus was that, firstly, the status quo was no longer an option and, secondly, throughout any change process, services must continue to be delivered to the residents, businesses and visitors without any interruption. When “change ” finally arrived, it was sudden, with little preparatory time, and it was massive. On Jan. 1, 1998, the new “amalgamated ” City of Toronto was born. As many can attest, the amalgamation process has not always been smooth sailing. In fact, the experience could be likened to a white water rafting adventure: sometimes calm, sometimes rocky, sometimes slower than you anticipated, sometimes a bit faster than you would like, sometimes you get carried along with the flow, sometimes you tip and think you are going under the white water and sometimes you are not sure what is around the next bend. But one thing is for sure—the journey has been an interesting one. The following is a synopsis of our amalgamation experience. GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE HISTORY A new regional government known as Metropolitan Toronto was formed in 1953 as a two-tier federated system that balanced regional and local powers. The new government was given greater powers and responsibilities than had been accorded any municipal government of regional scope in Canada. The lower tier BY W. LES KELMAN comprised 13 local municipalities with elected councils but with mostly reduced responsibilities (see Table 1). In 1967, the number of local municipalities was reduced by amalgamation from 13 to six. The six were the Cities o
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