Abstract: This paper is a synthesis and review of the results of US research in the 1990s on the physical and biological factors affecting ocean production of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). The review follows the outline of US research under the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission Science Plan, which addresses issues concerning the ocean production of salmon. The research includes studies on juvenile salmon in coastal waters, ecology of salmon in the Gulf of Alaska, retrospective analyses of long-term data series, development and application of stock identification techniques, and international cooperative high seas salmon research. Our review indicates that climate-induced variation in productivity and fishing are the two major factors affecting ocean production of salmon, but the underlying mechanisms are not well known. To understand the processes linking climate, ocean productivity, and salmon production, we need stock-specific information on salmon distribution, abundance, and migration patterns with respect to environmental conditions. We recommend continuation of this research, with a strong emphasis on (1) the development of new technologies and international baselines for salmon stock identification, (2) shipboard research and monitoring programs to provide a platform for process studies, as well as data on interannual variation in ocean growth, distribution, and run timing of key stocks, and (3) the developmen
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