Introduction Networked (as opposed to stand-alone) applications execute across a network, provide functionality to human users, and can be divided into two classes: user-to-user and user-toinformation server. There are two architectures for realizing them : . Peer-to-peer, in which two or more users interact with peer computers or terminals, which in turn communicate over the network with one another to provide some user-to-user functionality. Examples include telecommunications (e.g., voice telephony and video conferencing) and collaborative computing (e.g., shared whiteboards and shared editors). . Client-server, in which a user interacts with a client computer or terminal, which in turn communicates over the network with a server computer for information access (e.g., file transfer, World Wide Web (WWW) browsing, an
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