This paper aims to develop simple statistical methods for indexing into an aerial image database using a cartographic model. The images contain severe distortions due to the acquisition process and the data cannot be recovered by applying a simple Euclidean transform to the model. The underlying representation of the infra-red image map within the database is based on histograms of line-segment pair relative angles. We investigate several alternative methods for histogram comparison and conclude that statistical distance measures (such as Bhattacharyya, Matusita and Divergence) provide significant performance improvements over the standard L 1 and L 2 norms. 1. Introduction This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of various statistical distance measures in the indexing of images using pairwise geometric histograms. The idea of image indexing using attribute histograms was first exploited in the colour domain by Swain and Ballard . It has since been shown to be effectiv..