The family Cephaloziellaceae is here defined in a very broad sense based mainly on molecular studies and includes morphologically diverse elements. Necessary new combinations are made in addition to some transfers and new synonyms in Cylindrocolea and Cephaloziella. Delimitation of Cephaloziellaceae A number of genera traditionally included in Scapaniaceae Migula (1904: 479), Lophoziaceae Cavers (1910: 293), or recently Anastrophyllaceae Söderström et al. (2010: 48), are shown not to be related to those families, but rather to an unresolved region including Cephaloziellaceae. Molecular studies are few and in most cases the taxa shown to belong here have been used as parts of more general studies, as outgroups or believed to be members of the family of interest. The only molecular study dedicated to this group including a fair number of taxa is Feldberg et al. (2013), but as it is a study of divergence time and does not include confidence values, it is difficult to draw too many conclusions from it
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