From the perspective of local livelihoods this paper explores the complex interactions between wildlife, livestock and people, and options for integrated wildlife and livestock management in the semi-arid rangelands of eastern Africa. The paper draws on the sustainable livelihoods approach which explicitly considers whether households have access to the assets required to engage in an activity, and how that activity ‘fits ’ with existing livelihood activities. Policy conclusions Appraisal and evaluation of integrated conservation and development projects have proven problematic because conventional methods fail to capture both direct and indirect impacts on rural livelihoods and their distribution across households. In the semi-arid rangelands of eastern Africa, where ‘plains game ’ is concentrated in and around protected areas, the costs of living with wildlife cannot simply be compensated by income generation from wildlife management
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