Malnutrition continues to be one of the world’s most serious development problems. Exacerbating the consequences of infectious disease, malnutrition contributes to about 6 million deaths annually of children under 5. While low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear the brunt of the problem, malnutrition affects both rich and poor countries, particularly the poorest in each nation. In developed countries, obesity and resultant diet-related noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes and heart disease, have become widespread, reducing productivity and increasing health care costs. Increasingly, LMICs suffer from a “double burden” of pervasive undernutrition and deficiencies in key vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) along with growing rates of obesity and NCDs. Poor nutrition during fetal development or in early childhood causes severe and irreversible cognitive and physical damage. Malnutrition ofte
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