Author for correspondence New synonym in Anastrophyllum nigrescens Anastrophyllum paramicola was described by Schuster (2002a) as being remotely allied to Anastrophyllum donnianum (Hooker 1813: 39) Stephani (1893: 140) and Anastrophyllum assimile (Mitten 1860: 93) Stephani (1893: 140). However, Schuster did not at all mention the relatively common Anastrophyllum nigrescens and the description match that species well. New synonyms in Anastrophyllum auritum Anastrophyllum auritum is a very variable species, which has resulted complicates its taxonomy. The problem is insufficient knowledge of the extreme variability in the branching patterns, size of plants, leaf insertion etc., which also has influenced the infrageneric (especially sectional) classification of the genus Anastrophyllum (Spruce 1876: 235) Stephani (1893: 139) proposed by Schuster (1969, 2002a). Some populations of this species from localities with extreme severe conditions (most of subantarctic populations, including the type of Anastrophyllum auritum from Table Mt., populations from highest elevations in Andes etc.) are very small plants with mostly only terminal branches, sometimes also with ventral-lateral branching producing stolons, pectinately arranged leaves, small (reduced to small teeth or slime papilla) or missing appendages, dorsal part of leaves extended only slightly or not across the stem and nearly not decurrent dorsal leaf bases. However, optimally developed plants of Anastrophyllum auritum, relatively common in high mountains of tropica
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