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Building a 3rd generation ITS for symbolization: Adding a tutorial model with multiple tutorial strategies

By Neil T. Heffernan and Kenneth R. Koedinger


Symbolization is the ability to translate a real world situation into the language of algebra. We believe that symbolization is the single most important skill students learn in high school algebra. We present research on what makes this skill difficult and report the discovery of a “hidden ” skill in symbolization. Contrary to past research that has emphasized that symbolization is difficult due to both comprehension difficulties and the abstract nature of variables, we found that symbolization is difficult because it is the articulation in the “foreign ” language of “algebra”. We also present Miss Lindquist, an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) designed to carry on a tutorial dialog about symbolization. Miss Lindquist has a separate tutorial model encoding pedagogical content knowledge in the form of different tutorial strategies that was partially developed by observing an experienced human tutor. We discuss aspects of this human tutor’s method that can be modeled well by Miss Lindquist and share examples of what she can do. Through testing, we plan to learn about the relative effectiveness of the different tutorial strategies Miss Lindquist uses

Year: 2000
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