in multiple situations. Sadly, there are all too few examples of stable conclusions in software engineering (SE). In fact, the typical result is conclusion instability where what is true for project one, does not hold for project two. We can find numerous studies of the following form: there is as much evidence for as against the argument that some aspect X adds value to a software project. Below are four examples of this type of problem which we believe to be endemic within SE. – Jørgensen (2004) reviewed15studiescomparingmodel-basedtoexpert-based estimation. Five of those studies found in favor of expert-based methods, five found no difference, and five found in favor of model-based estimation. – Mair and Shepperd (2005) compared regression to analogy methods for effort estimation and similarly found conflicting evidence. From a total of 20 empirical studies, seven favored regression, four were indifferent and nine favored analogy. – Kitchenham et al. (2007) reviewed empirical studies that checked, if data imported from other organizations were as useful as local data (for the purposes of building effort models). From a total of seven studies, three found that models from other organizations were not significantly worse than those based on local data, while four found that they were significantly different (and worse)
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