We give direct constructions of pseudorandom function (PRF) families based on conjectured hard lattice problems and learning problems. Our constructions are asymptotically efficient and highly parallelizable in a practical sense, i.e., they can be computed by simple, relatively small low-depth arithmetic or boolean circuits (e.g., in NC 1 or even TC 0). In addition, they are the first low-depth PRFs that have no known attack by efficient quantum algorithms. Central to our results is a new “derandomization ” technique for the learning with errors (LWE) problem which, in effect, generates the error terms deterministically. 1 Introduction and Main Results The past few years have seen significant progress in constructing public-key, identity-based, and homomorphic cryptographic schemes using lattices, e.g., [Reg05, PW08, GPV08, Gen09, CHKP10, ABB10a] and many more. Part of their appeal stems from provable worst-case hardness guarantees (starting with the seminal work of Ajtai [Ajt96]), good asymptotic efficiency and parallelism, and apparent resistance to quantu
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