and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsement, either express or implied, of the NSF, the U.S. government. Keywords: immediate feedback, delayed feedback, feedback, cognitive tutor, intelligent tutoring system, Traditionally, intelligent tutoring systems have provided feedback on the basis of a so-called expert model. Expert model tutors incorporate production rules associated with error free and efficient task performance. These systems intervene with corrective feedback as soon as a student deviates from a solution path. This thesis explores the effects of providing feedback on the basis of a so-called intelligent novice cognitive model. An intelligent novice tutor allows students to make errors, and provides guidance through the exercise of error detection and correction skills. The underlying cognitive model in such a tutor includes both rules associated with solution generation, and rules relating to error detection and correction. There are two pedagogical motivations for feedback based on an intelligent novice model. First, novice performance is often error prone and students may need error detection and correction skills in order to succeed in real world tasks. Second, the opportunity to reason about the causes and consequences of errors may allow students to form a better model of the behavior of domain operators. Learning outcomes associated with the two models were experimentally evaluated. Results show tha
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